What is the difference in a jet airplane engine and a rocket?
One difference between rockets and jets is found in the type of fuel they burn. Jet engines are air breathers. They take in air (which contains oxygen needed for combustion), mix it with fuel, burn it to increase the pressure, and exhaust the spent gases out the back at a high rate of speed. This high-speed ejection of mass propels the plane forward. Rockets do almost the same thing with two exceptions. Unlike jets, they carry their own oxygen along with them and a rocket does not have wings that add lift. Rocket fuel can burn without external oxygen being present. As a side note, once a solid fuel rocket is ignited, it cannot be turned off. Jet engines must have outside oxygen from the air.
Another difference is that jet planes have wings for lift and rockets do not. The density of air and the speed of the plane affect the lift on the wings. For rockets the lift (thrust) is provided solely by the expelled gases.
Therefore, a rocket can travel in the vacuum of space void of air, but a jet engine could not. A jet plane has a ceiling limit above which it cannot fly because there is not enough air. The jet engine must be able to ’breathe’ in order to function. Rocket fuel is considerably more efficient than jet fuel and rockets usually are more powerful. However, the rocket generally is heavier because it must carry all of its oxidizer with it.
The channel led by a simple astrophysics professor from Stanford is rapidly gaining popularity on Telegram!
He created a Telegram channel for his students, explaining to them the most complicated phenomena of space in simple language, but as it turned out, not only his students are interested in his articles and answers to questions, but thousands of people around the world as well!
Wondering how black holes form, what would happen to Earth if the moon disappeared, and why we'll never encounter aliens?
A wind up music box is a music box that requires a lever to be spun to propel the inner mechanisms, most likely a cylinder or a disc, to turn. This is made possible by a spring that stores force as the level is spun by an outside force. The resulting spinning motion will then result in music or sound being produced by the machinations inside the casing.
A music box works by rotating a metal cylinder with protruding pins that pluck the individual prongs of a steel comb. The sounds that resonate from the vibrating prongs are the notes we hear lower notes from longer prongs and higher notes from shorter ones. Some more complicated music boxes even contained a small drum or little bells.
Music boxes have been around since the 18th century. Some were the size of a loaf of bread, others as big as a dresser. Back then, music boxes were actually used to enjoy some nice parlor music, unlike the little twirling ballerina box you might find in your grandmother's attic. In the 19th century, Swiss artisan watchmakers continually refined the design. What we have today is the result of hundreds of years of tinkering with gears and bells and pins and steel combs.
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The Coriolis effect is the apparent curvature of global winds, ocean currents, and everything else that moves freely across the Earth’s surface. The curvature is due to the rotation of the Earth on its axis. The effect was discovered by the nineteenth century French engineer Gaspard C. Coriolis. He used mathematical formulas to explain that the path of any object set in motion above a rotating surface will curve in relation to objects on that surface.
If not for the Earth’s rotation, global winds would blow in straight north-south lines. What actually happens is that global winds blow diagonally. The Coriolis effect influences wind direction around the world in this way: in the Northern Hemisphere it curves winds to the right; in the Southern Hemisphere it curves them left. The exception is with low pressure systems. In these systems there is a balance between the Coriolis effect and the pressure gradient force and the winds flow in reverse.
Satellites appear to follow curved paths when plotted on world maps because the Earth is a sphere and the shortest distance between two points on a sphere is not a straight line. Two-dimensional maps distort a three-dimensional surface in some way. The distortion increases with closer to the poles. In the northern hemisphere a satellite’s orbit using the shortest possible route will appear to follow a path north of the straight line from beginning to end, and then curve back toward the equator. This occurs because the latitudes, which are projected as straight horizontal lines on most world maps, are in fact circles on the surface of a sphere, which get smaller as they get closer to the pole. This happens simply because the Earth is a sphere and would be true if the Earth didn’t rotate.
The Coriolis effect is of course also present, but its effect on the plotted path is much smaller, but increases in importance when calculating a trajectory or end destination. The effect becomes very important when you need to plot trajectories for missiles or artillery fire.
Angiography is a type of X-ray used to check blood vessels. Blood vessels do not show clearly on a normal X-ray, so a special dye needs to be injected into your blood first. This highlights your blood vessels, allowing your doctor to see any problems. The X-ray images created during angiography are called angiograms. It can help to diagnose or investigate several problems affecting blood vessels..
Coronary angiography is a procedure that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x-rays to see how blood flows through the arteries in your heart.Coronary angiography is often done along with cardiac catheterization. This is a procedure that measures pressures in the heart chambers.The procedure most often lasts 30 to 60 minutes.
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Would you like to be a doctor at the central hospital, where patients with the most unusual abnormalities and pathologies are brought in daily? Wouldn't you be frightened?
Homo Sapiens is the channel of the practicing surgeon, which he started to show photos and videos of the most unusual cases from his practice to young professionals. Not even a month later, the channel hit the radar of ordinary users and became unexpectedly popular.
The most extraordinary diseases, pathologies, surgeries and other cases from the life of a practicing doctor.
Dr. House is nervously sitting on the sidelines - @sapiens_tg
Cotton Candy is a light and fluffy sugar confectionery which resembles cotton wool. First step in making cotton candy is converting the granular sugar into fine filaments. To do this, solid sugar is placed in a large, stainless steel hopper. This hopper has a tapered bottom, which funnels the sugar into the extruder. The extruder is a rotating metal cylinder, which has holes along its sides and is equipped with a heating element. Inside the extruder, the sugar is heated such that it melts and becomes a molten liquid. The spinning extruder then throws the strands of liquid sugar out in all directions through the holes in its sides. As it exits the extruder, the liquid sugar cools and forms solid strands. These strands, which are the fibers used to make cotton candy, are collected in a large circular pan surrounding the extruder. To prevent coagulation of the strands, moisture is minimized during this phase of manufacture. In machines that produce a small amount of cotton candy, such as those found at carnivals, the strands of cotton candy are then collected by the machine operator. He takes a cardboard cone or a stick and passes it around the sides of the collection pan. As the cardboard is passed around, the sticky sugar strands adhere to it. When enough is collected on the cone, the cotton candy is sold to the consumer immediately. The situation is slightly different for automated cotton candy machines. In these machines, the strands of cotton candy are pulled onto a conveyor belt and transferred into a sizing container. Here the candy strands are combined into a continuous bundle.