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Agriculture Exams Library

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2023-04-11 14:05:01 Sexual reproduction
Multiplication of plants through embryos which have developed by fusion of male and female gametes is known as sexual reproduction.All the seed propagating species belong to this group.

Sporogenesis
Production of microspores and megaspores is known as sporogenesis. In anthers, microspores are formed through microsporogensis and in ovules, the megaspores are formed through megasporogenesis.

Microsporogenesis
The sporophytic cells in the pollen sacs of anther which undergo meiotic division to form haploid i.e., microspores are called microspore (MMC) or pollen mother cell (PMC) and the process is called microsporogenesis.Each PMC produce four microspores and each microspore after thickening of the wall transforms into pollen grain.

Megasporogenesis
A single sporophytic cell inside the ovule, which undergo meiotic division to form haploid megaspore, is called megaspore mother cell (MMC) and the process is called megasporogenesis. Each MMC produces four megaspores out of which three degenerate resulting in a single functional megaspore.

Gametogenesis
The production of male and female gametes in the microspores and megaspores is known as gametogenesis.

Microgametogenesis
This is nothing but the production of male gametes or sperm. On maturation of the pollen, the microspore nucleus divides mitotically to produce a generative and a vegetative or tube nucleus. The pollen is generally released in this binucleate stage. The reach of pollen over the stigma is called pollination. After the pollination, the pollen germinates. The pollen tube enters the stigma and travels down the style. The generative nucleus at this phase undergoes another mitotic division to produce two male gametes or sperm nuclei. The pollen along with the pollen tube possessing a pair of sperm nuclei is called microgametophyte. The pollen tube enters the embryo sac through micropyle and discharges the two sperm nuclei.

Megagametogenesis
The nucleus of the functional megaspore undergoes three mitotic divisions to produce eight or more nuclei. The exact number of nuclei and their arrangement varies from one species to another. The megaspore nucleus divides thrice to produce eight nuclei. Three of these nuclei move to one pole and produce a central egg cell and two synergid cells on either side. Another three nuclei migrate to the opposite pole to develop into three antipodal cells.

The two nuclei remaining in the center, the polar nuclei, fuse to form the secondary nucleus. The megaspore thus develops into a mature female gametophyte called megagametophyte or embryo sac. The development of embryo sac from a megaspore is known as megagametogeneis. The embryo sac generally contains one egg cell, two synergids with the apparent function of guiding the sperm nucleus towards the egg cell and three antipodals which forms the prothalamus cells and one diploid secondary nucleus.

Fertilization
The fusion of one of the two sperms with the egg cell producing a diploid zygote is known as fertilization.
2.5K views11:05
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2023-04-10 14:27:59
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2023-04-10 11:15:56 #weed_science
Parasitic Weeds and their Hosts
(i) Dodder/Cuscuta:
• Total stem parasite.
• Host crop: Lucerne.
• It can be managed by spray of paraquat

(ii) Loranthus/dandropthoe falcate:
• Partial stem parasite.
• Host crops: plantation crops.

(iii)Broom rape/orobanche sp.
• Total root parasite.
• Host crops of orobanche: Mustard, tobacco, chili,
brinjal, potato.

(iv) Witch weed/ Striga sp.
• Partial/semi root parasite.
• Host plants of striga: Sorghum, maize, sugarcane,
sunflower.
3.5K views08:15
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2023-04-09 19:33:50
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2023-04-09 17:29:09 #Pathology #diseases #imp

Bacteria leaf blight of rice caused by ?- Xanthomas oryzae

The disease caused by Leptosphaeria sacchari in sugarcane is ?
- Ring spot

Loose smut of wheat is ?
- Internally seed borne

The Karnal bunt of wheat is caused by ?
- Neovossia indica

Sugarcane rust is caused by ?
- Puccinia eriathi

Leaf blight of wheat is caused by ?- Alternaria trictinia

Stem rot of rice is caused by ?
- Sclerotium oryzae

Tungro disease of rice is spread by ?
- Nephotettix virescens

Ufra disease of rice is caused by ?
- Ditylenchus

Whip smut of sugarcane is caused by ?
- Ustilago sciteminae

Red rot of sugarcane is caused by ?
- Collectorichum falcatum

Sugarcane mosaic disease is transmitted by ?
- Rhopalosiphum maidis

Disease also known as “Killer Disease of Wheat” is ?
- Black/ Stem rust

Akiochi disease is due to ?
- Sulphur toxicity

White rust of crucifers is caused by ?- Albugo candida

Crop showing maximum resistance to nematode is ?
- Marigold

Iris famine in 1845 ,was caused due to ?
- Phytophothora infestance

Father of Indian Pathology is ?
- E.J.Butler

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1.4K views14:29
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2023-04-09 07:59:15 #Fisheries
Common fish species

IMCs: Labeo Rohita, L. calbasu, L. fimbriatus, C. mrigala, Catla catla

Mahseers: Tortor, T. putitora, T. khudree, Neolissochilus hexagonolepis

Minor carps: Cirrhinus cirrhosa, C. reba, Labeo kontius, L. bata, Puntius sarana, Schizothorax richardsonii

Catfishes: Aorichthys sheengala, Wallago attu, Pangasius etc.

Featherbacks: Notopterus notopterus, Notopterus chitala”

Murrels: Channa marulius, C. stratus, C. punctatus, C. gachua etc.

Exotic fishes: Oreochromus mossumbicus, Hypophthalmicthysmolitrix, Cyprinus carpio var. communis, C. specularis, Gambusia affins, Ctenopharyngodon idella.
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2023-04-08 18:22:11
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2023-04-08 13:59:49
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2.7K views10:59
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2023-04-08 07:05:38 #Carbon_Nitrogen (C:N)_Ratio

Humas - 10 : 1

Normal Soil - 10.1 - 12.1

Legumes - 20.1 - 30.1

Cereals - 90 : 1

FYM - 20-30 : 1

Sawdust - 400 : 1 ( highest )

Microorganism - 4 : 1 - 9 : 1( Lowest)
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2023-04-07 16:19:19
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1.8K views13:19
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